Everything you need to know about diabetes

Diabetes, having a complete name as diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which your body can not move the sugar present in your blood to the liver. Under normal conditions, an organ known as the pancreas in your body secretes a hormone known as insulin. This hormone is responsible to regulate blood sugar levels. It moves the excess glucose present in the blood to the liver for metabolism, where it is then stored as glycogen.

Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome in which there is either an absence of insulin secretion or the receptors get desensitized to it, thereby causing a hike in blood sugar level.

Diabetes, if left untreated, can lead to many other complications. If you are diabetic, you must attend the follow-up visit to a healthcare provider. They will monitor your medications and blood sugar level. It is essential to visit them because diabetes needs regular sliding of insulin and medication, depending upon the blood glucose levels. For that, you can visit a medical specialist in Lahore.

Types of diabetes

There are different types of diabetes. They can be classified as follows.

Type 1 diabetes

It is an autoimmune disease in which any infection or the cells of your own body destroy the cells of the pancreas- the organ that secretes insulin. It usually occurs in people of young age group. The only treatment for it is to get insulin from external sources.

Type 2 diabetes

It is a kind of diabetes that mostly occurs in the older age group. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas secretes insulin, but the receptors lose sensitivity to it. Therefore, insulin-sensitizing medicines can serve as its treatment.


It occurs in people who are moving towards type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it usually occurs in people of older age groups. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar levels remain elevated. But they are not too high to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes. At this stage, losing weight, cutting down sugar intake, and incorporating physical exercise can help.

Gestational diabetes

It is a condition in which your blood glucose levels remain elevated during pregnancy. It increases the risk of type 2 diabetes for women of older age. Your gynecologist will therefore advise you to get your blood sugar levels checked during 24th to 28th week of gestation. They may also ask to get an oral glucose tolerance test for its screening.

Symptoms of diabetes

The signs and symptoms of diabetes may differ concerning their types. Some general symptoms can be enlisted as follows.

Increased thirst

Increased urination

Blurry vision

Weight loss

Extreme fatigue

Infections that take longer to recover

In men, it can cause erectile dysfunction, decreased sex drive, and poor muscle strength.

In women, it can cause urinary tract infections, dry itchy skin, and yeast infections.

Risk factors

Risk factors for diabetes slightly differ concerning their types.

Type 1 diabetes

The risk of type 1 diabetes is associated with a family tendency. If your parents or siblings have type 1 diabetes, the risk for you increases.

Type 2 diabetes

The risk factors for type 2 diabetes are as follows.

Being overweight

Being 45 or older

Have a family history

Have had gestational diabetes

Have high blood pressure

Have high blood cholesterol

Have prediabetes

Inactive lifestyle

Sugar rich diet

Gestational diabetes

The risk factors for gestational diabetes are as follows.

Have had gestational diabetes in the last pregnancy


Age over 25

Have had given birth to a baby whose weight was higher than 9 pounds

Have polycystic ovarian syndrome

Have a family history of type 2 diabetes

Complications of diabetes

Diabetes, if left untreated, leads to uncontrolled blood glucose levels. Which in turn can lead to various complications like;

Heart attacks

Blood pressure



Eye diseases

Recurrent infections

A wound that does not heal

Vision loss


Kidney disease

Infections of the foot can lead to gangrene, hence amputation

Hearing loss




Complications of gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes, if left untreated, can be fatal for the mother, as well as the baby. It can cause the following complications for the baby.

Premature birth

Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in old age

Higher birth weight than normal



Low blood sugar


Diabetes is a disease in which your body can not move blood sugar to the liver, where it can be stored in the form of glycogen. It can occur due to various reasons, has different types and each of them may cause different symptoms.

If you have complaints of blurry vision, increased thirst, increased urination, and weight loss, you must visit the best medical specialist in Karachi.